Volume 3, Issue 1, Winter 2021


Letter to Editor

Italy, China and Turkey are the Top Three Countries in Health Research Publications for the Year 2019-2020: Analysis of One Hundred and Forty Countries (140)

Waseem Hassan; Mehreen Zafar

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60497

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has significantly affected every aspect of life such as health, economy, and socio-economic fabric, and research activities. This motivated us to explore the research output of more than 145 countries in health sciences research for 2019-2020. It is noteworthy that research outputs are classified in “health sciences”, health professions, dentistry, medicine, multidisciplinary, nursing and veterinary. Scopus (Elsevier BV Company, USA) was employed for the purpose. The data were independently screened, sorted, and extracted on 26th Dec, 2020. Based on the number of publications and research growth rate, we designed the publication clubs and provided the ranking details in Table 1. if we keep the number of publications to be ten thousand (10,000), it was found that Italy has the highest growth rate (n = 29.92), followed by China (n = 28.27) and Turkey (n=25.36). Regardless of the minimum number of publications, Uzbekistan has the highest growth rate (n = 124.69), followed by Democratic Republic Congo (DRC) (n = 93.55) and Jamaica (n = 68.93). The numerical details about the research progress of more than 140 countries are provided in Table 2. It can be concluded that significant progress can be noticed in health sciences during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Review Article

Effect of Sunlight on SARS-CoV-2: Enlightening or Lighting?

Hasham Hussain; Shoaib Ahmad; Christos Tsagkaris; Zoha Asghar; Abdullahi Tunde Aborode; Mohammad Yasir Essar; Anastasiia Dmytrivna Shkodina; Ajagbe Abayomi Oyeyemi; Shahzaib Ahmad; Mohammad Amjad Kamal

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 6-9
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60498

In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, many researchers have investigated non
pharmaceutical interventions for restricting the transmission of severe acute respiratory
syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including sunlight. Regarding the lack of effective
medicines for SARS-CoV-2, the scientific community works to evaluate the effects of physical
features of sunlight such as electromagnetic radiation and thermal energy on viral strains.
Sunlight gained a considerable amount of attention, including an infamous mention in the
White House. Since then, little has become known about further research on the effect of
sunlight on SARS-CoV-2. Existing evidence focuses on germicidal wavelengths of the
Ultraviolet (UV) and the stimulation of vitamin D production. UV radiation types B and C
have a high germicidal capacity but are blocked by the atmosphere due to their harmful effect
on living species. UV radiation type A, which reaches the surface of the earth, has a quite
lower germicidal potential. The contribution of vitamin D in the immune response against
COVID-19 is yet to be discussed. With the third spike of the pandemic affecting more and
more countries worldwide, understanding the effect of sunlight on COVID-19 can help public
health officials to design their action plans. At the same time, shedding light on this matter
will contribute to debunking popular myths circulating since the onset of the pandemic and
draw a clear line between health literacy and misinformation.

An Overview of COVID-19 Treatment: Possible Candidates Based on Drug Repurposing and Molecular Docking

Mai Abdelgawad; Sahar Allam; Maha Abdelmonaem Shaheen; Mohamed Ali Hussein; Hoda Azmy Elkot; Aya A. Gaber; Khaled A. Marghany; Asmaa A. Abdelwahab; Rewan H. Alashrey; Hoda Y. Abdallah

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 10-35
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60499

The current pandemic of COVID-19 is considered a worldwide threat to public health caused
by a novel type of coronaviridae family called SARS-CoV-2. Owing to the urge of finding a
treatment for this virulent virus, many aspects of drug development are swept aside. This
review aimed to clarify the double-edged sword of drug repurposing in COVID-19 via
summarizing the available treatment options and promising candidates for COVID-19 based
on drug repurposing preclinical studies and in-silico approach. Different drugs target SARS
CoV-2 main structures under clinical investigation; some showed limited efficacy and severe
side effects, while others can be promising solutions. Some drugs suppress the cytokine storm
and modulate immune response during viral infection, including anti-interleukin and
glucocorticoids. Antiparasitic agents are repurposed for SARS-CoV-2 infection management.
Various vaccines and monoclonal antibodies are designed against SARS-CoV-2 and are being
evaluated in different preclinical and clinical stages. However, none of them is approved yet.
Convalescent Plasma Transfusion is a promising strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection,
where impressive results are reported in clinical trials, requiring more validation. Furthermore,
anticoagulant therapy exhibited better disease outcomes in patients admitted to the ICU.
Finally, in-silico studies suggested several potential compounds or FDA-approved drugs
targeting various viral structure subunits. In conclusion, although many clinical trials were
launched to examine potential therapies based on drug repurposing for COVID-19, there is no
definitive treatment till now. Moreover, computational approaches identified several
compounds and FDA-approved drugs with potential inhibitory effects.

Original Article

Analysis and Prediction of Heart Disease Using Machine Learning and Data Mining Techniques

Md. Murad Hossain; Salman Khurshid; K. Fatema; M. Zahid Hasan; Mohammad Kamal Hossain

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 36-44
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60500

In clinical, sciences expectation of heart malady is one of the foremost troublesome
undertakings. Nowadays, coronary illness may be a significant reason for bleakness and
mortality in present-day society. Coronary illness could be a term that doles intent on countless
ailments identified with the heart. Clinical determination is incredibly a big, however entangled
errand that must be performed precisely, effectively, and unequivocally. Although huge
advancement has been imagined within the finding and treatment of coronary illness, further
examination is required. The accessibility of enormous measures of clinical information
prompts the requirement for amazing information examination instruments to get rid
of valuable information. Coronary illness determination is one in all the applications where
information mining and AI instruments have demonstrated victories. This study used the
machine learning algorithms KNN, Naïve Bayes, Random forest, Logistic regression, Support
vector machine, J48, and Decision tree by WEKA software to spot which method provides
maximum performance and accuracy. Using these algorithms with WEKA software, we made
an ensemble (Vote) hybrid model by combining individual methods. Our research aims to
access the effectiveness of various machine learning algorithms to diagnose the center disease
and find the feasible algorithm, which is that the best for a heart condition

Case Report

Two Cases of One-stage Procedure of TAVI and CERAB

Antonio Rizza; Cataldo Palmieri; Francesco Negro; Angelo Monteleone; Giuseppe Raffaele Trianni; Marcello Ravani; Sergio Berti

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 45-51
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60501

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) and abdominal aorto-iliac stenosis typically affect elderly patients,
and both are associated with the adverse outcome if not adequately managed. Surgical
intervention is the first treatment in younger patients without significant comorbidities.
Notably, these conditions can be present simultaneously. The choice of the optimal treatment
of these patients is challenging, and no clear recommendations are available, but the option of
simultaneous treatment by percutaneous intervention, especially in high surgical-risk patients,
appeared to be attractive. We report a series of 2 cases with severe AS and aorto-iliac stenosis
referred to "Ospedale del Cuore" of Massa (Italy) who could not undergo surgical intervention.
They were treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and covered
endovascular reconstruction of aortic bifurcation (CERAB) within the same procedure. Our
case series showed that one-stage intervention is an effective, safe, and feasible treatment of
these two pathologies. In the future, this approach can represent the "gold-standard" for elderly
and frail subjects








Effective Coiling of a Post-surgical Aortic Pseudoaneurysm

Antonio Rizza; Francesco Negro; Cataldo Palmieri; Sergio Berti

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 52-55
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60502

A 45 years old man underwent a surgical replacement of ascending aorta and aortic arch for a
type A aortic dissection. A 3 months CT follow-up documented a significant pseudoaneurysm
close to the aortic root. A percutaneous intervention was successfully performed with the
deployment of four Penumbra Coil inside the pseudoaneurysm, ensuring a proper exclusion
as highlighted in long-term CT follow-up







Correspondence

Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmaceutics Research Output in One Hundred and Fifty Countries for the Year 2019-2020

Waseem Hassan; Mehreen Zafar

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 56-60
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60503

In this note, the data about “Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmaceutics” is compiled.
Scopus has included pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics (all), pharmacology,
toxicology, pharmaceutics (miscellaneous), drug discovery, pharmaceutical science,
pharmacology, and toxicology in the stated category. We analyzed the publications data of
one hundred and fifty (150) countries for 2019-2020. The data were independently screened,
sorted, and extracted on 29
th Dec 2020 (from Scopus). Based on the number of publications
(NoP) and growth rate (GR), we designed and ranked the top country in each “publication
club,” as shown in Table 1. Furthermore, if we ignore the minimum number of publications,
the top ten ranked countries with growth rate are Uzbekistan (n = 1388.37), Ethiopia (n =
238.64), Brunei Darussalam (n = 200.00), Gambia (n = 200.00), Mongolia (n = 171.43),
Honduras (n = 150.00), Philippines (n = 144.00), Rwanda (n = 142.86), French Polynesia (n
= 125.00) and Benin (n = 120.00). Based on the total publication record from more than 150
countries (n = 118706 for 2020 and n = 100366 for 2019), a significant and positive growth
rate (n = 18.27) has been noticed in “Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmaceutics”. The
NoP and GR details of each country are provided in Table 2