About Journal

Canadian Journal of Medicine (CJM) is an open-access and peer-reviewed journal available in print and online published by the Canadian Institute for Knowledge Development (CIKD). CJM considers papers for publication in any aspect of experimental medicine and clinical research. CJM is devoted to original reports of clinical and basic research, review articles, letters to the editor, case reports, and short articles on all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis, and management of medical diseases in the broadly defined fields of Medicine. As such, the journal is interested in laboratory and animal...
Read More ...

Iatrogenic Brachiocephalic Artery Trunk Perforation Successfully Treated with Percutaneous Implantation of Covered Stent

Antonio Rizza; Francesco Negro; Alberto R. De Caterina; Cataldo Palmieri; Sergio Berti

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 61-64
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60504

Percutaneous coronary intervention through right radial artery access significantly reduces vascular complications compared to femoral access—an 80-year-old woman presented with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS).  Coronary angiography performed using right radial artery access showed left anterior descendent artery disease with multiple stenoses, which was treated percutaneously. Ten minutes after the procedure, the patient presented dyspnea, hypotension, neck edema, and jugular turgor. She was immediately intubated and treated with invasive ventilation, fluid expansion, corticosteroids, and vasopressors. Urgent computerized tomography showed brachiocephalic artery trunk dissection and perforation with extravascular hemorrhage in the mediastinum and neck with venous compression without any sign of aortic, carotid, or subclavian dissection. Two days later, the percutaneous endovascular repair was performed, and a covered self-expanding stent was successfully positioned in the brachiocephalic trunk, sealing the perforation and treating the dissection. The patient progressively recovered and was discharged for rehabilitation. We provided the first report of a brachiocephalic trunk perforation using a radial approach, causing mediastinal and neck hematoma treated with percutaneous endovascular repair showing that vascular complications can be successfully treated percutaneously if be performed by an experienced team.

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Mentha Arvensis L. [Pudina]: A Medicinal Plant

Disha Patel; Vijay Upadhye; Tarun K Upadhyay; Esha Rami; Rakeshkumar Panchal

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 67-76
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60506

Mentha arvensis is an essential aromatic, energizer restorative, and medicinal plant in the mint family Lamiaceae. Mentha arvensis is found in rugged areas or cold climates of India. Herein, we studied the presence of different dynamic metabolites like- Flavonoids, Saponins, Tannins, terpenoids, steroids, Carb, anthraquinones, Heart glycosides, and alkaloid. In the given study, the phytochemical and antimicrobial action of leaves concentrates on pudina (Mentha arvensis L.). The broth dilution method has been used to check the antimicrobial activity of Mentha arvensis. In vitro antimicrobial movement was studied against pathogenic microbes such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus clavatus by agar well dispersion method. When used on bacterial colonies and fungal colonies, the separated extract showed the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus clavatus over the control. The maximum zone of inhibition was found in Methanolic extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus clavatus over the control. Thus, the present approach can be useful to find new bioactive segments to improve new drugs. Our findings showed that the Mentha arvensis plant gives 25- 100 MIC (ug/ml) to inhibit the growth of the mentioned microorganisms. Thus, it can be used as a strong antimicrobial agent against pathogens, mainly Aspergillus Clavatus.

The Progress and Research Trends in Coronavirus (COVID-19) Research Publications: Epidemiological and Bibliometrical Approaches

Waseem Hassan; Seyed Mohammad Nabavi; Aysa Rezabakhsh

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 77-98
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60507

The main objective of the present study is to summarize the research output about COVID-19. The search was conducted in Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature, and later it was analyzed on VOSviewer. Total 34716 research documents have been published about COVID-19 till September 2020. We focused on three parameters, i.e., co-authorship pattern, citations, and co-words analysis. Based on the total number of publications, h-index, total citations, and citations per document, we provided the list of the top ten authors, institutes, and countries. Based on the total number of publications, the top-ranked author is Wiwanitkit, V., and the top institute is Harvard Medical School, USA. It is worthy to note that more than 150 countries have contributed to research output. Based on the total publications, citations, and h-index, we provided details for each continent. Later, we provided the list of the top ten countries. The highest documents are published by the USA (25.35%). We analyzed the 343682 keywords from all publications to provide a general overview or the common trends in publications. We also analyzed the top 2000 most cited documents and provided the details of the top ten authors, institutes, and countries. Based on the VOSviewer' analysis, the information on the co-occurrence of words in titles, abstracts, and keywords is provided. This may help to depict the common trends in research publications. Based on the bibliometrics results, significant work has been published on pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this pandemic.

Risk Factors and Therapeutic Interventions for Osteoporosis

Alyssa Wu; John C. Johnson; Zachary Schauer; Austin A. Mardon; Terrence Wu; Peter A. Johnson

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 99-104
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60508

Osteoporosis is a disease of the bone characterized by a loss in bone mineral density. Although this disease is commonly diagnosed in adults, it is not directly associated with increasing age. There are many links and potential risk factors to developing osteoporosis, including hormonal imbalances, nutrient deficiency, cardiovascular health, and exercise. This review examines how osteoporotic fractures are diagnosed using bone imaging techniques, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. The quality of life for patients with osteoporosis is discussed concerning the protective and risk factors associated with osteoporosis. Specifically, the risk factors for osteoporosis include genetic inheritance patterns, BMI, age, and lifestyle choices (including alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical exercise). There are many protective factors for preventing osteoporotic fractures, including natural bone supplements and prebiotics. These supplements can be found in most dairy products, which are fortified with vitamin D, which can be consumed in the diet to support bone health. Prebiotics can also be used to increase the healthy proliferation of commensal gut bacteria that are used to improve the bone-building process, relieving bone breakdown during the stages of bone turnover. These therapeutic interventions can be applied to support existing patient care to prevent and maintain overall bone health.

Study on Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Adhatoda Vasica

Avani Gohel; Vijay Upadhye; Tarun K Upadhyay; Esha Rami; Rakeshkumar Panchal; Suraj Jadhav; Rajesh Dhakane; Vijay Kele

Canadian Journal of Medicine, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60509

Vasaka or Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees is a well-known plant medication in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine. Cough, whooping cough, cold, and clinging phlegm in the mouth, throat, chest, or breast have been traditionally treated using Adhatoda vasica nees. The present study aimed to evaluate Adhatoda vasica's phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity. The preliminary phytochemical screening of alkaloids, steroids, saponins, phenols, and terpenoid yielded positive results. The antibacterial activity of ethanol and leaf extracts of Adhatoda vasica was investigated in this study. Based on the data presented herein, the largest zone of inhibition was found to be against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antifungal activity of Aspergillus clavatus was proven to have the maximum zone of inhibition. As a result, the current method may be effective in identifying new bioactive compound for the development of novel medications. Thus, it may be used as a strong antimicrobial agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogens.

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Carbon Monoxide Poisoning can Lead a Perfect Result: A Case Report

Canan Bolcu Emir; Selin Gamze Sümen; Tuna Gümüş

Canadian Journal of Medicine, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60510

Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) is a common emergency worldwide, especially in the wintertime. It is known to cause serious morbidities, resulting in high mortality risk. COP is also reported to result in neurological complications for which hyperbaric oxygen therapy is likely to offer some benefits, which certainly makes it one of the potential treatment modalities.  Here, Case in the paper is of a 64-year-old female patient with carbon monoxide poisoning. Her neurological symptoms nearly disappeared after the application of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) and conventional medical treatment. Our case guides for the key role of HBOT in the treatment process of a 64-year-old female patient with COP. Our clinical experience revealed that hyperbaric oxygen therapy could successfully reverse the symptoms of delayed neurological findings caused by COP, a serious and preventable health problem.

An Overview of COVID-19 Treatment: Possible Candidates Based on Drug Repurposing and Molecular Docking

Mai Abdelgawad; Sahar Allam; Maha Abdelmonaem Shaheen; Mohamed Ali Hussein; Hoda Azmy Elkot; Aya A. Gaber; Khaled A. Marghany; Asmaa A. Abdelwahab; Rewan H. Alashrey; Hoda Y. Abdallah

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 10-35
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60499

The current pandemic of COVID-19 is considered a worldwide threat to public health caused
by a novel type of coronaviridae family called SARS-CoV-2. Owing to the urge of finding a
treatment for this virulent virus, many aspects of drug development are swept aside. This
review aimed to clarify the double-edged sword of drug repurposing in COVID-19 via
summarizing the available treatment options and promising candidates for COVID-19 based
on drug repurposing preclinical studies and in-silico approach. Different drugs target SARS
CoV-2 main structures under clinical investigation; some showed limited efficacy and severe
side effects, while others can be promising solutions. Some drugs suppress the cytokine storm
and modulate immune response during viral infection, including anti-interleukin and
glucocorticoids. Antiparasitic agents are repurposed for SARS-CoV-2 infection management.
Various vaccines and monoclonal antibodies are designed against SARS-CoV-2 and are being
evaluated in different preclinical and clinical stages. However, none of them is approved yet.
Convalescent Plasma Transfusion is a promising strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection,
where impressive results are reported in clinical trials, requiring more validation. Furthermore,
anticoagulant therapy exhibited better disease outcomes in patients admitted to the ICU.
Finally, in-silico studies suggested several potential compounds or FDA-approved drugs
targeting various viral structure subunits. In conclusion, although many clinical trials were
launched to examine potential therapies based on drug repurposing for COVID-19, there is no
definitive treatment till now. Moreover, computational approaches identified several
compounds and FDA-approved drugs with potential inhibitory effects.

Coronavirus [COVID-19] and IgA Deficiency:Mini Review Article

Hossein Pakzad; Zahra Sadeghi; Massoud Houshmand; Farzaneh Rahvar

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 13-16
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2020.60494

Spread of COVID-19 in all of the world caused the warning alert from WHO. It began from China and was the reason of many death through the world since 2019 December. Elders and people with previous diseases such as IgA deficiency [IgAD] are more susceptible to get COVID family. Also, higher level of IgA can combat with infectious disease.

Two-Phase Immune Responses of COVID-19 and Therapeutic Approaches

Seyed Hassan Saadat

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2020.60492

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 spread rapidly worldwide and disease was announced a pandemic by the WHO. Standard therapeutic strategy against COVID-19 is lacking. Regarding to the two-phase pathogenesis of the COVID-19 (immune defense-based protective and postinitial inflammation-driven damaging phases, different therapeutic regimens including antiviral agents (e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, and sofosbuvir, etc.), some antibiotics and immunomodulatory (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine) and anti inflammatory agents (corticosteroids) have been considered in hospitals for COVID-19 patients, but balancing their
benefits and potential risk is of great importance [1-7].
Immune-boosting strategies (e.g., anti-sera or pegylated IFNα) and antiviral therapy may be of great importance in the initial phase or non-severe stages, while immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory approaches can be used for halting tissue damage and managing the symptoms in the inflammatory phase. There are conflicting results in prescribing corticosteroids or immunomodulation for COVID-19 patients due to paradoxical negative effects (risk of death, secondary bacterial infections and longer hospitalization) [8-9]. Activation of coagulation pathways
is also associated with increased proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in multiorgan injury. Severe COVID‐19 had disseminated intravascular coagulation, leading to the risk of venous thromboembolism [10], where naproxen (for antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory and anticoagulative effects) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; anti-inflammatory properties) may be considered for patients. It has been suggested that LMWH is contemplated because of concerns because of the presence of thrombi in the pulmonary circulation for those in patients with
raised d-dimer.
However, effective therapeutic approach requires balancing harmful and beneficial effects of regimens, to be prescribed by precision. Also, two-phase pathophysiology and immune responses of COVID-19 should not be underemphasized for treatment of patients.

Analysis and Prediction of Heart Disease Using Machine Learning and Data Mining Techniques

Md. Murad Hossain; Salman Khurshid; K. Fatema; M. Zahid Hasan; Mohammad Kamal Hossain

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 36-44
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60500

In clinical, sciences expectation of heart malady is one of the foremost troublesome
undertakings. Nowadays, coronary illness may be a significant reason for bleakness and
mortality in present-day society. Coronary illness could be a term that doles intent on countless
ailments identified with the heart. Clinical determination is incredibly a big, however entangled
errand that must be performed precisely, effectively, and unequivocally. Although huge
advancement has been imagined within the finding and treatment of coronary illness, further
examination is required. The accessibility of enormous measures of clinical information
prompts the requirement for amazing information examination instruments to get rid
of valuable information. Coronary illness determination is one in all the applications where
information mining and AI instruments have demonstrated victories. This study used the
machine learning algorithms KNN, Naïve Bayes, Random forest, Logistic regression, Support
vector machine, J48, and Decision tree by WEKA software to spot which method provides
maximum performance and accuracy. Using these algorithms with WEKA software, we made
an ensemble (Vote) hybrid model by combining individual methods. Our research aims to
access the effectiveness of various machine learning algorithms to diagnose the center disease
and find the feasible algorithm, which is that the best for a heart condition

Re-evaluating the Effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine on Urticaria: A Systematic Review

Immanuel Sani; Muambo Eko; Youssef Chedid; Yaser Hamza; Jubilent Amalendran

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2020.60496

Urticaria is a common disease characterised by transient erythematous, oedematous, pruritic
wheals in the dermis due to the release of various inflammatory mediators from mast cells.
There was previously limited evidence on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in
the literature but there is now emerging evidence that warrants further investigation. This
review aims to appraise the current literature and propose contemporary evidence
recommendations for hydroxychloroquine treatment of patients with urticaria by performing
a systematic review. The MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from
inception to 12 June 2020 in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. We also examined the
reference lists of the retrieved studies. Texts were reviewed independently by two authors.
The risk of bias and quality of the studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills
Programme for systematic reviews. A total of 7 studies were included, involving 211 pooled
trial participants. There was moderate-quality evidence from two RCTs that revealed the
effectiveness of HCQ in the subjective improvement of urticarial symptoms. Two case reports
and one case series also demonstrated the therapeutic benefit of HCQ for urticaria. There was
considerable heterogeneity of outcome variables and trial designs which did not permit a meta
analysis of the results. The limited available evidence reveals that HCQ is effective for the
resolution of urticaria. Further multi-centred, placebo-controlled, RCTs are required in order
to reveal the relative effectiveness of HCQ in comparison to current second-line treatment
modalities








Coronavirus [COVID-19] and IgA Deficiency:Mini Review Article

Hossein Pakzad; Zahra Sadeghi; Massoud Houshmand; Farzaneh Rahvar

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 13-16
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2020.60494

Spread of COVID-19 in all of the world caused the warning alert from WHO. It began from China and was the reason of many death through the world since 2019 December. Elders and people with previous diseases such as IgA deficiency [IgAD] are more susceptible to get COVID family. Also, higher level of IgA can combat with infectious disease.

An Overview of COVID-19 Treatment: Possible Candidates Based on Drug Repurposing and Molecular Docking

Mai Abdelgawad; Sahar Allam; Maha Abdelmonaem Shaheen; Mohamed Ali Hussein; Hoda Azmy Elkot; Aya A. Gaber; Khaled A. Marghany; Asmaa A. Abdelwahab; Rewan H. Alashrey; Hoda Y. Abdallah

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 10-35
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60499

The current pandemic of COVID-19 is considered a worldwide threat to public health caused
by a novel type of coronaviridae family called SARS-CoV-2. Owing to the urge of finding a
treatment for this virulent virus, many aspects of drug development are swept aside. This
review aimed to clarify the double-edged sword of drug repurposing in COVID-19 via
summarizing the available treatment options and promising candidates for COVID-19 based
on drug repurposing preclinical studies and in-silico approach. Different drugs target SARS
CoV-2 main structures under clinical investigation; some showed limited efficacy and severe
side effects, while others can be promising solutions. Some drugs suppress the cytokine storm
and modulate immune response during viral infection, including anti-interleukin and
glucocorticoids. Antiparasitic agents are repurposed for SARS-CoV-2 infection management.
Various vaccines and monoclonal antibodies are designed against SARS-CoV-2 and are being
evaluated in different preclinical and clinical stages. However, none of them is approved yet.
Convalescent Plasma Transfusion is a promising strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection,
where impressive results are reported in clinical trials, requiring more validation. Furthermore,
anticoagulant therapy exhibited better disease outcomes in patients admitted to the ICU.
Finally, in-silico studies suggested several potential compounds or FDA-approved drugs
targeting various viral structure subunits. In conclusion, although many clinical trials were
launched to examine potential therapies based on drug repurposing for COVID-19, there is no
definitive treatment till now. Moreover, computational approaches identified several
compounds and FDA-approved drugs with potential inhibitory effects.

Meta-Analysis of Prevalence of CFTR Mutations in Middle East Populations

Kazhaleh Mohammadi; Sahar Hassannejad; Arthur Saniotis; Massoud Houshmand

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2020.60491

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive, genetic disease that causes persistent lung infections and limits the ability to breathe over time. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of middle east CFTR gene mutations in CF patients to find out the most common mutations in this area. Tree mutations are common in all middle-east populations: Del 508, W1282X and N1303K which can have detection rate as high as 60.9 %.

Re-evaluating the Effectiveness of Hydroxychloroquine on Urticaria: A Systematic Review

Immanuel Sani; Muambo Eko; Youssef Chedid; Yaser Hamza; Jubilent Amalendran

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2020.60496

Urticaria is a common disease characterised by transient erythematous, oedematous, pruritic
wheals in the dermis due to the release of various inflammatory mediators from mast cells.
There was previously limited evidence on the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in
the literature but there is now emerging evidence that warrants further investigation. This
review aims to appraise the current literature and propose contemporary evidence
recommendations for hydroxychloroquine treatment of patients with urticaria by performing
a systematic review. The MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from
inception to 12 June 2020 in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. We also examined the
reference lists of the retrieved studies. Texts were reviewed independently by two authors.
The risk of bias and quality of the studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills
Programme for systematic reviews. A total of 7 studies were included, involving 211 pooled
trial participants. There was moderate-quality evidence from two RCTs that revealed the
effectiveness of HCQ in the subjective improvement of urticarial symptoms. Two case reports
and one case series also demonstrated the therapeutic benefit of HCQ for urticaria. There was
considerable heterogeneity of outcome variables and trial designs which did not permit a meta
analysis of the results. The limited available evidence reveals that HCQ is effective for the
resolution of urticaria. Further multi-centred, placebo-controlled, RCTs are required in order
to reveal the relative effectiveness of HCQ in comparison to current second-line treatment
modalities








Two-Phase Immune Responses of COVID-19 and Therapeutic Approaches

Seyed Hassan Saadat

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2020, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2020.60492

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 spread rapidly worldwide and disease was announced a pandemic by the WHO. Standard therapeutic strategy against COVID-19 is lacking. Regarding to the two-phase pathogenesis of the COVID-19 (immune defense-based protective and postinitial inflammation-driven damaging phases, different therapeutic regimens including antiviral agents (e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, ribavirin, oseltamivir, and sofosbuvir, etc.), some antibiotics and immunomodulatory (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine) and anti inflammatory agents (corticosteroids) have been considered in hospitals for COVID-19 patients, but balancing their
benefits and potential risk is of great importance [1-7].
Immune-boosting strategies (e.g., anti-sera or pegylated IFNα) and antiviral therapy may be of great importance in the initial phase or non-severe stages, while immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory approaches can be used for halting tissue damage and managing the symptoms in the inflammatory phase. There are conflicting results in prescribing corticosteroids or immunomodulation for COVID-19 patients due to paradoxical negative effects (risk of death, secondary bacterial infections and longer hospitalization) [8-9]. Activation of coagulation pathways
is also associated with increased proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in multiorgan injury. Severe COVID‐19 had disseminated intravascular coagulation, leading to the risk of venous thromboembolism [10], where naproxen (for antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory and anticoagulative effects) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; anti-inflammatory properties) may be considered for patients. It has been suggested that LMWH is contemplated because of concerns because of the presence of thrombi in the pulmonary circulation for those in patients with
raised d-dimer.
However, effective therapeutic approach requires balancing harmful and beneficial effects of regimens, to be prescribed by precision. Also, two-phase pathophysiology and immune responses of COVID-19 should not be underemphasized for treatment of patients.

Publisher: Canadian Institute For Knowledge Development

Email:  EditorialOffice.CJM@cikd.ca

Editor-in-chief: Seyed Hassan Saadat

Print ISSN: 2564-0127

Online ISSN: 2564-0135

Latest News

Canadian Journal of Medicine
As of January 1, 2018, I have the honor to serve as Editor-in-Chief of the Canadian Journal of Medicine. CJM has evolved from the Canadian Institute for Knowledge Development, which was founded in 2018. ...

Read More ...