Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Spring 2021

Iatrogenic Brachiocephalic Artery Trunk Perforation Successfully Treated with Percutaneous Implantation of Covered Stent

Antonio Rizza; Francesco Negro; Alberto R. De Caterina; Cataldo Palmieri; Sergio Berti

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 61-64
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60504

Percutaneous coronary intervention through right radial artery access significantly reduces vascular complications compared to femoral access—an 80-year-old woman presented with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS).  Coronary angiography performed using right radial artery access showed left anterior descendent artery disease with multiple stenoses, which was treated percutaneously. Ten minutes after the procedure, the patient presented dyspnea, hypotension, neck edema, and jugular turgor. She was immediately intubated and treated with invasive ventilation, fluid expansion, corticosteroids, and vasopressors. Urgent computerized tomography showed brachiocephalic artery trunk dissection and perforation with extravascular hemorrhage in the mediastinum and neck with venous compression without any sign of aortic, carotid, or subclavian dissection. Two days later, the percutaneous endovascular repair was performed, and a covered self-expanding stent was successfully positioned in the brachiocephalic trunk, sealing the perforation and treating the dissection. The patient progressively recovered and was discharged for rehabilitation. We provided the first report of a brachiocephalic trunk perforation using a radial approach, causing mediastinal and neck hematoma treated with percutaneous endovascular repair showing that vascular complications can be successfully treated percutaneously if be performed by an experienced team.

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Mentha Arvensis L. [Pudina]: A Medicinal Plant

Disha Patel; Vijay Upadhye; Tarun K Upadhyay; Esha Rami; Rakeshkumar Panchal

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 67-76
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60506

Mentha arvensis is an essential aromatic, energizer restorative, and medicinal plant in the mint family Lamiaceae. Mentha arvensis is found in rugged areas or cold climates of India. Herein, we studied the presence of different dynamic metabolites like- Flavonoids, Saponins, Tannins, terpenoids, steroids, Carb, anthraquinones, Heart glycosides, and alkaloid. In the given study, the phytochemical and antimicrobial action of leaves concentrates on pudina (Mentha arvensis L.). The broth dilution method has been used to check the antimicrobial activity of Mentha arvensis. In vitro antimicrobial movement was studied against pathogenic microbes such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus clavatus by agar well dispersion method. When used on bacterial colonies and fungal colonies, the separated extract showed the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus clavatus over the control. The maximum zone of inhibition was found in Methanolic extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus clavatus over the control. Thus, the present approach can be useful to find new bioactive segments to improve new drugs. Our findings showed that the Mentha arvensis plant gives 25- 100 MIC (ug/ml) to inhibit the growth of the mentioned microorganisms. Thus, it can be used as a strong antimicrobial agent against pathogens, mainly Aspergillus Clavatus.

The Progress and Research Trends in Coronavirus (COVID-19) Research Publications: Epidemiological and Bibliometrical Approaches

Waseem Hassan; Seyed Mohammad Nabavi; Aysa Rezabakhsh

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 77-98
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60507

The main objective of the present study is to summarize the research output about COVID-19. The search was conducted in Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature, and later it was analyzed on VOSviewer. Total 34716 research documents have been published about COVID-19 till September 2020. We focused on three parameters, i.e., co-authorship pattern, citations, and co-words analysis. Based on the total number of publications, h-index, total citations, and citations per document, we provided the list of the top ten authors, institutes, and countries. Based on the total number of publications, the top-ranked author is Wiwanitkit, V., and the top institute is Harvard Medical School, USA. It is worthy to note that more than 150 countries have contributed to research output. Based on the total publications, citations, and h-index, we provided details for each continent. Later, we provided the list of the top ten countries. The highest documents are published by the USA (25.35%). We analyzed the 343682 keywords from all publications to provide a general overview or the common trends in publications. We also analyzed the top 2000 most cited documents and provided the details of the top ten authors, institutes, and countries. Based on the VOSviewer' analysis, the information on the co-occurrence of words in titles, abstracts, and keywords is provided. This may help to depict the common trends in research publications. Based on the bibliometrics results, significant work has been published on pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this pandemic.

Risk Factors and Therapeutic Interventions for Osteoporosis

Alyssa Wu; John C. Johnson; Zachary Schauer; Austin A. Mardon; Terrence Wu; Peter A. Johnson

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 99-104
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60508

Osteoporosis is a disease of the bone characterized by a loss in bone mineral density. Although this disease is commonly diagnosed in adults, it is not directly associated with increasing age. There are many links and potential risk factors to developing osteoporosis, including hormonal imbalances, nutrient deficiency, cardiovascular health, and exercise. This review examines how osteoporotic fractures are diagnosed using bone imaging techniques, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. The quality of life for patients with osteoporosis is discussed concerning the protective and risk factors associated with osteoporosis. Specifically, the risk factors for osteoporosis include genetic inheritance patterns, BMI, age, and lifestyle choices (including alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical exercise). There are many protective factors for preventing osteoporotic fractures, including natural bone supplements and prebiotics. These supplements can be found in most dairy products, which are fortified with vitamin D, which can be consumed in the diet to support bone health. Prebiotics can also be used to increase the healthy proliferation of commensal gut bacteria that are used to improve the bone-building process, relieving bone breakdown during the stages of bone turnover. These therapeutic interventions can be applied to support existing patient care to prevent and maintain overall bone health.