Keywords : Bone mineral density

Risk Factors and Therapeutic Interventions for Osteoporosis

Alyssa Wu; John C. Johnson; Zachary Schauer; Austin A. Mardon; Terrence Wu; Peter A. Johnson

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 99-104
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60508

Osteoporosis is a disease of the bone characterized by a loss in bone mineral density. Although this disease is commonly diagnosed in adults, it is not directly associated with increasing age. There are many links and potential risk factors to developing osteoporosis, including hormonal imbalances, nutrient deficiency, cardiovascular health, and exercise. This review examines how osteoporotic fractures are diagnosed using bone imaging techniques, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. The quality of life for patients with osteoporosis is discussed concerning the protective and risk factors associated with osteoporosis. Specifically, the risk factors for osteoporosis include genetic inheritance patterns, BMI, age, and lifestyle choices (including alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical exercise). There are many protective factors for preventing osteoporotic fractures, including natural bone supplements and prebiotics. These supplements can be found in most dairy products, which are fortified with vitamin D, which can be consumed in the diet to support bone health. Prebiotics can also be used to increase the healthy proliferation of commensal gut bacteria that are used to improve the bone-building process, relieving bone breakdown during the stages of bone turnover. These therapeutic interventions can be applied to support existing patient care to prevent and maintain overall bone health.