Issue 1

Necessity of Evaluation of Non-coding RNAs in Clinical Trial for Target Therapy

Seyed Hassan Saadat

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2019, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2019.60486

Genomic and proteomic approaches have improved the understanding of the mechanisms
involved in cancer. Genomic mutations in cancer indicate that many mutations or altered copy
numbers in cancer often occur in non-coding regions of the DNA including microRNAs
(miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and antisense
RNAs (Li et al, 2017; Yoon & Rossi, 2018; Yu, Jian, Allan, & Tu, 2019).
Noncoding RNAs, including lncRNAs and miRNAs, are potential therapeutic targets because they
have the potential to be applied in the diagnosis and prognosis of a number of cancers. Furthermore,
their regulations are implicated in development and progression of many kinds of malignancies e.g.,
proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and drug resistance, thus suggesting its potential in
targeted therapy (Smolle, Calin, Pichler, & Calin, 2017; Vo et al., 2019; Zhang & Xin, 2018).
Therefore, RNA profiling using bioinformatics tools and the development of databases can be helpful
in development of targeted research in this regard, where in-depth understanding of their multiple
mechanisms will be helpful in clarifying their substantial role in regulation of many genes involved
in cancer. For instance, anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMO) are considered to be capable of
suppressing the function of oncomirs, leading to inhibition of tumor growth. Clinical trials and
increased success rates in noncoding RNAs therapy are considered to be an opportunity for cancer

Amelioration and Prognostic Significance of the Urine/Plasma Protein Creatinine Ratio Levels (uCr/pCr) as Predictive Biomarkers and its Change Patterns in Early Diagnosis of Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity of Solid Tumors

Ghadir Jamal; Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabatabaei

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2019, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2019.60487

Cisplatin (Cp) is extensively utilized as an antineoplastic drug employed in the treatment of
miscellaneous solid tumors with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Therefore, traditional
biomarkers including urinary creatinine (uCr) and serum creatinine (sCr) are utilized for detection
of Cp-induced renal injury. In this study, we compared changes in uCr/uCr gene expression levels
(ml/min) at 1 ,2and 4 h and 2, 3, 4, 7,10,14 and 28 days after cisplatin infusion (0.75 mg/mL) versus
baseline in 7 consecutive patients of solid kidney tumors with chronic kidney injury(CKI) and 3
consecutive controls without CKI. Furthermore, short-term cisplatin chemotherapy (STC, 1 day)
was compared to long-term (LTC, 28days) treatment using plasma and urine creatinine and renal
histology. We found CKI was associated with higher levels of sCr (149.5± 19.08versus 124 ±
23.54ng/mL, P < 0.001) and uCr (0.66± 0.11versus 0.94± 0.05, P < 0.001) compared with exposed
controls. Patients with CKI associated LTC had increased level of sCr (79.1 ± 4.01versus 146.1 ±
6.66 ml/min,P < 0.05) and uCr (1.35 ± 0.08versus 57.66 ± 18.88 ml/min,P < 0.05) compared with
CKI patients without cisplatin-treated tumors. Since patients with renal injury revealed significantly
higher CKI scores and severe proximal tubular cells damage, significant differences were found for
plasma or urine creatinine levels ratios. High expression of uCr/ sCr ratio in the renal is associated
with nephrotoxicity in solid kidney tumors, suggesting uCr may play a role in proximal tubular
injury of LTC, therefore, our data suggest that urinary uCr may be considered to be reliable markers
to monitor renal injury in renal injury patients undergoing LTC.

Identification and Expression of GFAP, YKL-40 and RBP4 in Serum as Noninvasive Biomarkers with Diagnostic and Prognostic Value for Detecting and Monitoring Glioma Patients

Fawziah M. Mohammed; Nima Mohseni Kabir

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2019, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 10-19
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2019.60488

The prognosis of patients with malignant glioma is poor. Identification of novel and effective
biomarkers for this purpose has long been an important target. In this study, we investigated the role
and expression of GFAP, YKL-40 and RBP4 in glioma patients. We evaluated the expression of
markers above on glioma by ELISA, qRT-PCR, Western blot, Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test
and Cox proportional-hazard analysis. The median RBP4 level in serum sample of patients was
53.61 ± 21.23 ng/ml, while it was 13.07 ± 10.31 ng/ml in control group. Moreover, the result
revealed raised serum concentrations of YKL-40 and GFAP in patients as compared to controls.
(The median level: 293.51± 105.41 versus 86.4 ± 51.2 ng/ml; 187.51± 91.06 versus 24.27 ±
12.64 ng/ml, respectively).And also, the transcriptional levels of RBP4 were determined to be
increased in tumor tissue samples compared with control samples (mean ± SD: 2.82 ± 1.23 vs. 0.75
± 0.21, P <0.001), as well as transcriptional levels YKL-40 and GFAP were notably strong in glioma
patients, comparable to that seen in control tissues (mean ± SD: 5.33± 1.13 vs. 1.21 ± 0.86; 3.05±
1.37 vs. 0.68 ± 0.34; all P <0.001). Consistent with the transcriptional levels, western blotting
analysis also indicated that the RBP4, YKL-40 and GFAP proteins were increased in glioma tissues.
Furthermore, the serum RBP4 level was not linked to advanced tumor grade, age, location or gender
or with Karnofsky performance Status (KPS) (all P >0.05). The serum YKL-40 and GFAP levels
were significantly higher in glioma patients with high tumor grades (P= 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier
analysis and the Log-rank test showed that high expression of YKL-40 and GFAP were associated
with shorter survival (All p <0.001), while RBP4 expression was not related to shorter survival (P
>0.05). Our results showed that high serum expression of YKL-40 and GFAP were independent
prognostic molecule biomarkers for poor prognosis prediction in glioma patients

Recent Developments of Diagnostic Criteria in Multiple Sclerosis

Massoud Houshman; Fawziah M. Mohammed

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2019, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 20-28
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2019.60489

This review describes the more important developments of the neuroimaging of multiple
sclerosis (MS) in recent years, and provides a discussion of advanced MR imaging
techniques with regard to current findings, clinical correlations, and future directions. MS
pathology is originally defined by the presence of focal white matter lesions,
characterized by inflammatory/demyelinating, axonal loss, edema, blood brain barrier
break-down, and neurodegenerative processes that occur earlier in life, which usually
affects the gray and white matter, brainstem, cerebellum, spinal cord and optic nerve. In
recent years, the use of MRI techniques represents as a powerful tool to non-invasively
study different pathological substrates of lesions and microscopic tissue changes.
Techniques such as T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI are very
sensitive in detecting lesions and, thus, increase the level of certainty of MS diagnosis.
In this review, we summarize the main evidence supporting the use of advanced MRI
techniques provide a better understanding of the neuropathologic processes that most
likely are related to disease activity and clinical progression in MS. Such metrics are able
to reveal a range of tissue changes that include inflammation, demyelination, axonal loss,
reactive glial scaring, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. In conclusion, MRI has
had a major impact on diagnosing MS, understanding the condition, and monitoring the
effects of clinical treatments

Investigation of Health Status with Psychological Aspects

Babak Otoukesh

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2019, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 29-34
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2019.60490

Mental disorders are among the most annoying for some employees in large organizations. Many
believe that in order to provide good service in large organizations, it needs to meet minimum
standards and pay attention to the types of stress and other mental disorders that result from those
centers. Undoubtedly, health care organizations are no exception, but because of the complexity of
the structure and the extent of inter-sectoral relationships, the need for this is becoming increasingly
important. The purpose of this study was to investigate the general health status of employees with
an approach to the psychological aspects. Human resources as an unmatched asset in health care
centers have formed one of the most important management concerns in it. Therefore, it is important
to examine the mental health status of the staff in the health care centers in view of the increasing
pressures and variety of missions of those centers. Finally, this study has been presented effective
strategies to improve the mental health of employees and subsequently to improve the quality of
health. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study in which all staff working in a health service center
was surveyed. The mental health status of the staff of the center was measured by the GHQ-28
questionnaire. Demographic variables, including age, sex, education, field of study, place of
employment, were also examined. The study data showed that 93.8% of the total population were
in desirable condition. Considering that more than 6% of employees lack the desired state of mental
health, and physicians and official forces are more prone to disorder than other employees, so
paying more attention to appropriate requirements, including necessary measures, meeting facilities
and paying attention to the welfare and cultural needs of the staff, should be used to maintain the
mental health of staff