Keywords : COVID-19

Autophagy and Coronavirus Interaction: Its Significance for COVID-19 Treatment

Pallab Chakraborty

Canadian Journal of Medicine, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2019.60516

In December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China [1, 2]. According to the literature, the coronavirus was found to interact with autophagy pathways [3–6]. The autophagy process (recycling pathway) is very important for the degradation of cytosolic compounds and the creation of building blocks in cells [7]. During starvation conditions, this process can be activated. It delivers the cytosolic components, including the damaged cellular organelles and mis-folded proteins, into lysosomes by establishing autophagosomes, where the degradation takes place [3, 8]. It is reported to have a paradoxical role in protecting cells from viral and bacterial infections, depending on the types of pathogens and the host cells [3, 9]. Commonly known processes are xenophagy (viral particle degraded) and virophagy (degradation of neosynthesized components from virus), and innate- adaptive immune induction, by which autophagy contributes to the antiviral response [8, 10, 11].

Evaluating and Mitigating the Challenges of International Students Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Overview

Daivat Bhavsar; Peter Anto Johnson; John Christy Johnson; Jasrita Singh; Austin Albert Mardon

Canadian Journal of Medicine, In Press
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2019.60517

International students are one of the most vulnerable social groups during the COVID-19 pandemic, ignored by social and financial welfare programs. The use of statistics, governmental statements, and academic literature outline the additional hardships faced by post-secondary international students to propose interventions to reduce precarity. The hospitality of educational institutions and response programs towards international students would be crucial for upholding commitments to social justice during these challenging times. This paper can contribute to understanding the role of social work in serving groups most vulnerable to COVID-19.

Pulmonary Embolism, the Only Demonstration of Covid-19 in a 53-year-old Patient

Sina Imanizadeh; Mohammad Rezapour; Hoorolnesa Ameli; Farzaneh Bolouki Moghaddam

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 162-166
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2019.60515

On March 30, 2021, a 53-year-old man was hospitalized, complaining of breath shortness, chest pain, and pain in his right leg from 2 weeks ago when he went mountain climbing. His symptoms did not improve, and his shortness of breath worsened. Therefore, he went to a hospital and was hospitalized to investigate the possibility of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Pulmonary Thromboembolism (PTE) further. At admission, O2 sat was 91, followed by Respiratory Rate (RR) of 18 and White Blood Cell (WBC) of 9.6. The patient was admitted to Coronary Care Unite (CCU), and color Doppler sonography, echocardiography, and pulmonary angiography were conducted.

An Evaluation of the Potential of Heparin to Inhibit the Viral Entry of SARS-CoV-2

Sudipta Samadder; Peter Anto Johnson; John Christy Johnson; Austin Mardon

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 3, Pages 147-152
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60513

Heparin is an anticoagulant medicine that prevents the formation of harmful blood clots in the vessels. Following the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), heparin has helped to improve the health of affected patients beyond its anticoagulant effects. The potential antiviral activity of heparin has attracted speculation due to its highly sulfated profile, which allows it to have a high binding affinity to a wide range of viral components. Heparin’s successful binding to the ZIKA virus, human immunodeficiency virus, as well as the SARS CoV and MERS CoV spike proteins have demonstrated its potential to inhibit the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the body. A high degree of sequence homology also enables heparin to have inhibitory binding potential on viral components. The SARS-CoV-2 virus exhibits significant differences in its spike glycoprotein (SGP) sequence compared to other coronaviruses. The SGP sequence in SARS-CoV-2 contains additional potential glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding domains that may drive differences in the attachment and entry process of the virus. Findings from unbiased computational ligand docking simulations, pseudotyped spike protein experiments, and cell to cell fusion assays have also opened possibilities to investigate the antiviral properties of heparin in clinical trials

NSAIDs/Nitazoxanide/Azithromycin Immunomodulatory Protocol Used in Adult, Geriatric, Pediatric, Pregnant, and Immunocompromised COVID-19 Patients: A Real-World Experience

Mina T. Kelleni

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 3, Pages 121-143
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60511

COVID-19 management still lacks a protocol of proven efficacy, and we present a novel COVID-19 immunomodulatory protocol based on our early pioneering article, re-purposing nitazoxanide/azithromycin combination for early COVID-19 diseases. Our findings were followed by two articles to justify the addition of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to nitazoxanide/azithromycin. Furthermore, another recent article of ours illustrated the potential immunomodulatory mechanisms by which all the drugs used in this manuscript might be beneficial for COVID-19 patients. We presented a case series of 34 confirmed and highly suspected COVID-19 patients. It is noteworthy that 13 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included while the others were diagnosed by other measures and all cases were managed by telemedicine. The patients included adult males and females as well as children. All patients have received a short 5-day-regimen of NSAIDs / nitazoxanide/ azithromycin +/- cefoperazone either in full or in part. The primary endpoint of this protocol was a full relief of all debilitating COVID-19 clinical manifestations, and it was fully achieved within two weeks. Most of the patients who were treated early have fully recovered during their described five days; the leucocytic/lymphocytic counts were significantly improved for those with prior abnormalities. Neither significant adverse effects nor post/para COVID-19 syndrome was reported. In conclusion, we present a pioneering 5-day protocol for the safe and effective treatment of COVID-19 using economic FDA-approved immunomodulatory drugs.  We recommend conducting double-blind, randomized clinical trials with sufficient strength at the earliest opportunity.

The Progress and Research Trends in Coronavirus (COVID-19) Research Publications: Epidemiological and Bibliometrical Approaches

Waseem Hassan; Seyed Mohammad Nabavi; Aysa Rezabakhsh

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue Issue 2, Pages 77-98
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60507

The main objective of the present study is to summarize the research output about COVID-19. The search was conducted in Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature, and later it was analyzed on VOSviewer. Total 34716 research documents have been published about COVID-19 till September 2020. We focused on three parameters, i.e., co-authorship pattern, citations, and co-words analysis. Based on the total number of publications, h-index, total citations, and citations per document, we provided the list of the top ten authors, institutes, and countries. Based on the total number of publications, the top-ranked author is Wiwanitkit, V., and the top institute is Harvard Medical School, USA. It is worthy to note that more than 150 countries have contributed to research output. Based on the total publications, citations, and h-index, we provided details for each continent. Later, we provided the list of the top ten countries. The highest documents are published by the USA (25.35%). We analyzed the 343682 keywords from all publications to provide a general overview or the common trends in publications. We also analyzed the top 2000 most cited documents and provided the details of the top ten authors, institutes, and countries. Based on the VOSviewer' analysis, the information on the co-occurrence of words in titles, abstracts, and keywords is provided. This may help to depict the common trends in research publications. Based on the bibliometrics results, significant work has been published on pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this pandemic.

Effect of Sunlight on SARS-CoV-2: Enlightening or Lighting?

Hasham Hussain; Shoaib Ahmad; Christos Tsagkaris; Zoha Asghar; Abdullahi Tunde Aborode; Mohammad Yasir Essar; Anastasiia Dmytrivna Shkodina; Ajagbe Abayomi Oyeyemi; Shahzaib Ahmad; Mohammad Amjad Kamal

Canadian Journal of Medicine, 2021, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 6-9
DOI: 10.33844/cjm.2021.60498

In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, many researchers have investigated non
pharmaceutical interventions for restricting the transmission of severe acute respiratory
syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including sunlight. Regarding the lack of effective
medicines for SARS-CoV-2, the scientific community works to evaluate the effects of physical
features of sunlight such as electromagnetic radiation and thermal energy on viral strains.
Sunlight gained a considerable amount of attention, including an infamous mention in the
White House. Since then, little has become known about further research on the effect of
sunlight on SARS-CoV-2. Existing evidence focuses on germicidal wavelengths of the
Ultraviolet (UV) and the stimulation of vitamin D production. UV radiation types B and C
have a high germicidal capacity but are blocked by the atmosphere due to their harmful effect
on living species. UV radiation type A, which reaches the surface of the earth, has a quite
lower germicidal potential. The contribution of vitamin D in the immune response against
COVID-19 is yet to be discussed. With the third spike of the pandemic affecting more and
more countries worldwide, understanding the effect of sunlight on COVID-19 can help public
health officials to design their action plans. At the same time, shedding light on this matter
will contribute to debunking popular myths circulating since the onset of the pandemic and
draw a clear line between health literacy and misinformation.